LoRaWAN is a low-power wide-area (LPWAN) wireless application protocol that connects IoT devices (battery-powered) to the internet for monitoring and visualization on cloud platforms.

LoRaWAN network architecture is deployed in a star-of-stars topology in which gateways relay messages between end-devices and a central network server.

The gateways are connected to the network server via standard IP connections and act as a transparent bridge, simply converting RF packets to IP packets and vice versa.

Click image for larger version

Name:	LoRaWANtopology.jpg
Views:	45
Size:	69.8 KB
ID:	2896



See this link for a sample of LoRaWAN gateways that can be interfaced with the various loRaWAN sensors. Some of the LoRaWAN gateways are used in the Helium Blockchain as helium hotspots for HNT mining.

See more information on helium hotspots.

LoRa gateways can utilize various backhauls like 4G LTE, 5G NR, Wi-Fi, and wired connections. Newer versions of the LoRaWAN gateways are fronting CBRS backhaul connectivity as more users deploy private CBRS networks.

LoRaWAN Backhauls connectivity

See available gateways


LoRaWAN endpoint devices have different classes.

Class A: Class A communication is always initiated by the end device and is fully asynchronous. Supports bi-directional communication.


Class B: In addition to class A downlink specifications, class B devices are synchronized to the network using periodic beacons, and open downlink ‘ping slots’ at scheduled times.

Class C: In addition to class A specifications (uplink followed by 2 downlink windows), class C further reduces latency on the downlink by keeping the receiver of the end-device open at all times that the device is not transmitting (half-duplex). The network server can, therefore, initiate downlink transmission at any time without any latency.


Applications
  • Agriculture
  • Utilities
  • Logistics and Asset tracking
  • Industries and Building Monitoring
Click image for larger version

Name:	455-0001.jpg
Views:	28
Size:	11.9 KB
ID:	2898 Click image for larger version

Name:	114991731.jpg
Views:	27
Size:	11.9 KB
ID:	2899 ​​​​​​​Click image for larger version

Name:	LS-113P.jpg
Views:	28
Size:	5.3 KB
ID:	2900
Sample LoRaWAN sensors


Open-source LoRaWAN Network Server Platform

The ChirpStack open-source LoRaWAN Network Server stack provides open-source components for LoRaWAN networks. It has a user-friendly web interface for device management and APIs for integration. more..

Another cloud platform for LoRaWAN IoT devices is The Things Network platform.



Sample Data packets from a sensor in SenseCAP web platform


See below snapshot of measurement data in hexadecimal from a temperature and humidity sensor:

Click image for larger version

Name:	Senscapplatform.jpg
Views:	23
Size:	24.9 KB
ID:	2901


The air temperature and humidity sensor measurement packet in the above image is: 010110B068000001021088F400008CFF

Air Temperature: 010110B0680000

01 – Channel number (Default value is 1 for correct sensor connection)

0110 – Measurement ID for air temperature (0x1001 in little-endian byte order)

B0680000 – (0x000068B0 in little-endian byte order to decimal equivalent is 26800. Divide value by 1000 you get 26.80C- value for air temperature)

Air Humidity: 01021088F40000

01 – Channel number (Default value is 1 for correct sensor connection)

0210 – Measurement ID for air humidity (0x1002 in little-endian byte order)

88F40000 – (0x0000F488 in little-endian byte order to decimal equivalent is 62600. Divide value by 1000 you get 62.6% RH)

CRC: 8CFF is the CRC verification part


Contact Rfwel wireless specialists on your next LoRaWAN IoT Project to learn how to utilize LoRaWAN protocol, Wireless Backhauls, and cloud platforms. You may also reach us at +1.480.218.1877 Option 2.